Volume 34, Number 14,
, pages 3535-3546
Author links open the overlay panel, , ,
We attempt to decipher the effects of submicron topography and microtopography on bone union phenomena and endosseous interface stability.implants. To investigate this experimentally, we implanted individuallytitanium alloyImplants of different superficial topographical complexity in the femur of rats for 6, 9 or 12 days. All five surfaces have been polished, machined, double acid etched, and shot blasted and acid etched in two ways; Each type of surface has been further modified by the deposition ofNanocrystalsvonfootballphosphate for a total of 10 material groups (norte=10 for each time point; 300 implants in total). Where necessary, we subjected the bone-implant interface to a mechanical fracture test. We have found that even the smoothest surfaces, when modified with submicron crystals, can bond to bone. However, as the movement stress through the bone to the implant increased with healing time, such interfaces failed while others with submicron features superimposed on surfaces of increasing microtopographical complexity remained intact under stress. We show here that higher order topography in the micron or micron range is a prerequisite for long-term interface stability. We show that each of these topographic scale ranges represents a scale range found in natural bone tissue. What emerges from an analysis of our results is a new means by which biologically relevant criteria can be used to assess the importance ofimplant surfaceTopography in different scale ranges.
We have previously said that endosteal integration by contact osteogenesis involves three steps: osteoconduction, or recruitment and migration of osteogenic cells to the surface of the implant; bone formation on the surface of the implant; and peri-implant bone remodeling , . However, contact osteogenesis can result in bone attachment to the implant surface if the implant has a surface topography with submicron physical undercuts . This sequence mimics the events that occur at sites of natural bone remodeling where the surface left by resorption of active osteoclasts presents a nanotopographically complex surface with undercuts , . We have also shown that topographically complex surfaces accelerate osteoconduction .
Bony union means the interlocking of the cement matrix of the bone with the properties of the underlying implant surface. However, bone healing is assessed by attempting to separate the bone from the implant. When the bone is attached to the implant surface, the force that breaks the pattern causes the bone to detach from the bone-implant interface , . By this definition, bone union can be distinguished from the phenomenon of bone growth , which has been described as bone growth on implant surface features in the >100 micron size range. Indeed, in a study originally aimed to show that the bonding phenomenon is chemical in nature, surface topography changes in the micrometer range were observed in hydroxyapatite ceramic implants, suggesting that micromechanical interlocking contributed to the bonding mechanism . In fact, it is salutary to emphasize that in natural bone remodeling, the cementum matrix invades the underlying resorbed bone surface to a depth of about one micron, which corresponds to the depth of penetration of the fibrous rim of the ruffled membrane of osteoclasts in the resorbed matrix. 9]. We therefore hypothesize that bone bonding could occur on surfaces with submicron topographical complexity in the absence of microtopography.
However, using the natural bone interface as a model, it is also evident that osteoclasts produce Howship lacunae, which are depressions excavated in the bone surface ranging in size from microns to hundreds of microns. The origin and extent of osteoclast resorption gaps have been studied for many decades following the pioneering studies of Boyde and colleagues . Recently, the surface properties of osteoclast resorption gaps were compared to those of potential implant materials and showed significant similarity in the micron range . Furthermore, Howship's lacunae form themselves on a bone surface with an even higher order topography, as can be seen from the strut-like morphology of the bony trabeculae in cancellous bone. Therefore, in natural bone remodeling, the bonding phenomenon is limited to submicron interlocking , however, the long-term physical stability of the interface between new and old bone, which is crucial for the stability of skeletal tissue, depends on the higher-order morphology properties. For this reason, we also hypothesize that the three-dimensional (3D) microtopographical surface design of the underlying implant is fundamental to maintaining the integrity of the bone/implant interface while peri-implant healing progresses and motion stress is transferred to the interface.
Therefore, in this work, we try to decipher the effects of submicron topography and microtopography on bone bonding and interface stability phenomena. To address this experimentally, we adopted the previously described method  by placing custom-made implants in rat femurs and subjecting the bone-implant interface to a mechanical fracture test. However, we did this throughout the healing period in the presence of implant candidate surfaces of different magnitudes of surface topography to distinguish between the respective biological roles of submicron topography in bone healing and bone healing. -Arrange the topography of the implant surface in interfacial stability, since the movement load increases transiently.
Three hundred custom-designed rectangular plates (1.3mm x 2.5mm x 4mm) were fabricated by Biomet3i (FL, USA) from titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V, abbreviated as Ti64). Each plate had a central hole in the long axis to allow for suture fixation in surgery and also to facilitate mechanical testing. This model, which we used in previous experiments , was modified by Nakamura et al. inspired. (1985) .
Individual groups of the complexity and topographical design of the modified implant surface were generated
The postoperative period was uneventful for all rats except one, which died on the first postoperative day (PO) and was excluded from the study. All remaining animals increased their walking activity over time after their recovery from surgery. Daily checks did not indicate that three rats suffered femoral fractures at any time post-operatively. They were observed only during harvest on days 6 (right femur - PL), 9 (left femur - GB/AE1) and 12 (right femur - DAE).
Our data clearly show that an additive submicron notched structure (DCD) on the PL and MC surfaces causes them to fuse with the bone. This addresses our first hypothesis; reported that the submicron features provided by DCD treatment on smooth surfaces as pits around and between which a cement line matrix was deposited as osteoblasts differentiated. We know that the cement layer arises from the secretion of non-collagenous proteins that mineralize rapidly .
The topography of the implant surface is multi-dimensional and can be described in terms of three distinct scale ranges, each resembling those observed at sites of remodeling in natural bone tissue. The indented submicron features on the implant surface provide a three-dimensional structure with which the cementitious matrix of the newly formed bone can interlock. Micron-scale features are analogous to those produced by single osteoclast resorption pits, while corresponding to those of higher order
expression of gratitude
The authors thank for the research support ofCanadian Institutes for Health Research (CIHR)jBiomet3i. The assistance of Susan Carter for animal care, Jian Wang for mechanical testing, Ross Towse for discussions of surface topography scale ranges, and Zeesy Powers for assistance with Fig. 9 are also greatly appreciated.
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The effect of discrete calcium phosphate nanocrystals on bone bonding to titanium surfaces
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Comparison of osteoclast resorption pits in bone with titanium and zirconia surfaces
Role of surface topography in bone formation and maintenance in endosseous titanium implants
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The relationship between surface roughness and interfacial shear strength for osseointegrated implants. a mathematical model
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Classification of osseointegrated implant surfaces: materials, chemistry and topography
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Cement deposition at inversion lines in rat femurs
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New glass-ceramics for bone replacement: evaluation of their adhesion to bone tissue
JBiomed Mater Res.
The bone growth rate in porous metal
JBiomed Mater Res.
Mechanical and morphological investigation of the tensile strength of a bone-hydroxyapatite interface
JBiomed Mater Res.
Scanning electron microscopy of the osteoclast-bone interface in vivo
Dentin resorption by isolated osteoclasts in vitro
Brother Dent J
The biological response to three different nanostructures applied to smooth implant surfaces
Clin Oral Implant Res
Biofunctionalized 3D Printed Structures for Biomedical Applications: A Critical Review of Recent Advances and Future Prospects
2023, Advances in Materials Science
One of the biggest trends currently revolutionizing healthcare is the adoption of advanced additive manufacturing techniques, also known as 3D printing, for personalized, regenerative and accessible treatments. Bioactivity controlled by physical and biochemical cues is critical to this broad spectrum of new treatment modalities. In this Review, we critically examine the current possibilities and limitations of biofunctionalization methods used to immobilize biomolecules on 3D printed structures. A number of considerations relevant to determining the optimal biofunctionalization approach for an application are described, and common assumptions are identified. Opportunities for extension and improvement are explored in terms of materials, biomolecules, cells, other immobilization methods, and other applications. The rapid increase in the number of studies observed in recent years is likely to be accelerated by the promising results obtained so far.
Zinc phosphate hybrid coating mediated by metallurgical organic zoledronic acid and 1-hydroxyethylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid nanorods on biodegradable Zn for osteoporotic fracture healing implants
2023, Acta Biomaterialia
Zn and its alloys are increasingly being considered for biodegradable implants for bone fracture fixation due to their attractive biodegradability and mechanical properties. However, due to its uneven degradation mode, sudden release of zinc ions, and insufficient osteoresorption-regulating and osteosynthesis-promoting properties, its clinical application poses a challenge for healing osteoporotic bone fractures. One type of Zn was used in this study2+Coordinated hybrid organometallic nanorods were synthesized from zoledronic acid (ZA) and 1-hydroxyethylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDP), which were then mixed in a zinc phosphate (ZnP) solution to mediate the deposition and growth of ZnP in a well integrated microstructured hybrid metal-organic/inorganic coating on Zn. The coating remarkably protected the Zn substrate from corrosion, particularly by reducing its local occurrence and suppressing Zn2+release. In addition, the modified Zn was osteocompatible and osteopromoting and, more importantly, resulted in osteogenesis.in vitrojlivebalanced pro-osteoblast and anti-osteoclast responses. These favorable functionalities are related to the nature of its bioactive components, in particular the biofunctional ZA and Zn ions it contains, as well as its unique micro- and nanoscale structure. This approach not only offers a new route to biodegradable metal surface modification, but also sheds light on advanced biomaterials for osteoporotic fractures and other applications.
The development of suitable biodegradable metal materials is of clinical relevance for the healing of osteoporotic fractures, while current strategies lack a good balance between bone formation and resorption. Here we developed an organic nanorod and metal microstructuring-mediated zinc phosphate hybrid coating-modified biodegradable Zn-metal to achieve such balanced osteogenicity. Hein vitroThe experiments confirmed that the coated Zn exhibited excellent proosteoblast and antiosteoclast properties and the coated intramedullary nail promoted fracture healing in a rat model of osteoporotic femur fracture. Our strategy may not only offer a new route to biodegradable metal surface modification, but also shed light on a better understanding of new advanced biomaterials, including for orthopedic applications.
Influence of the roughness of dental implants obtained by additive manufacturing on adhesion and osteoblast proliferation: a systematic review
He critically analyzed the existing literature to answer the question: "What influence does surface roughness of additively manufactured dental implants compared to machined ones have on the adhesion and proliferation of osteoblastic cells?"
This systematic review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and was registered in the Open Science Framework. The personalized search strategy was applied to the Embase, Pub Med, Scopus, and Science Direct databases, as well as Google Scholar and ProQuest gray literature. The selection process was carried out in two steps independently by two reviewers based on the admission criteria. The risk of bias was analyzed using a checklist of important parameters to consider.
By applying the search strategy in databases, 223 articles were found, after eliminating duplicates, 171 were analyzed by title and abstract, of which 25 were selected for full reading, of which 6 met the selection criteria. Two studies were included in this systematic review from the reference list with a total of 8 articles and none from the gray literature. 7 had a low and 1 moderate risk of bias.
1) roughness is a property that needs to be analyzed and correlated with the chemical composition inherent in the alloy and resulting from the surface treatment; morphology of topographic peaks and valleys; printing technology and its parameters; 2) Need for further studies at the biomolecular level to elucidate the mechanism by which roughness and the morphology of topographic peaks and valleys that describe the roughness affect osteoblast adhesion and proliferation.
Optimizing the multi-lens design of 3D microarchitectural implants
2022, Computational Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering
Recent advances in 3D printable microarchitectural materials offer unprecedented opportunities for the development of highly customized orthopedic implants. These devices, which are typically made of entirely solid materials, significantly alter the load transfer to the surrounding bone tissue, which can lead to interface instability and bone resorption. In this article, we present computational methods for synthesizing patient-specific, three-dimensional (3D) implants with heterogeneous microarchitecture. Our method simultaneously minimizes the risks of stress-induced interface fracture and periprosthetic bone remodeling while considering functional and manufacturing limitations.
We first developed a new parametric microarchitecture with desirable functional properties and a wide range of effective mechanical properties, including positive and negative Poisson's ratios. We then present formulations that optimize the spatial configuration of the microarchitectural parameters to simultaneously minimize the risk of stress-induced interface fracture and postoperative bone remodeling. To this end, a new target for bone remodeling is proposed that accounts for both bone apposition and bone resorption predicted by a stress-energy-density-based model. The interface failure target is defined as the maximum value of the multiaxial Hoffman failure criterion along the interface.
The method is applied to the design of 3D titanium hip implants with prescribed conventional geometries and compared in silico to both a conventional solid implant and a low-stiffness homogeneous lattice design. The optimized implant results in a performance increase of 64.0% in terms of bone remodeling and 13.2% in terms of interface fracture risk compared to a conventional solid implant design.(Video) Osseointegration of Dental Implants
A novel multi-structural reinforced Ti implant treatment using a combination of alkaline solution and bioactive glass sol
2021, Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Alkali treatment and sol-immersion coating of bioactive glass (BG) are known single methods for modifying titanium (Ti) surfaces. In this study, a unique combination of alkali treatment and bioactive Glassol dip coating was applied to the Ti substrate, followed by studying the mechanical properties and cellular responses.
Based on the methods outlined above, the Ti substrate was treated with 6 mL of a 5 M NaOH aqueous solution at 60 °C for 24 hours; Then 1.2 ml of a BG 58S sol was added to form a new composite nanostructure network covered by a thin layer of BG. To evaluate the coating layer formed, the morphology, elemental analysis, phase structure, adhesion property and cell reaction of the treated and untreated surfaces were examined.
The BG coating was reinforced with the nanostructure made by alkali treatment. The results obtained by applying the combined modification method confirmed that the mechanical and biological properties of the manufactured surface showed the highest performance compared to the individually modified and unmodified surfaces.
The improvements obtained with this method could be obtained from the proposed porous nanostructure and the apatite-transforming ability of the alkali treatment. Therefore, the hybrid application of alkaline BG treatment could be introduced as a promising surface modification strategy for hard tissue replacement applications.
Enhanced Spreading, Migration, and Osteodifferentiation of HBMSCs on Macroporous CS-Ta: A Biocompatible Macroporous Coating for Hard Tissue Repair
2021, Materials Science and Engineering C
A macroporous tantalum (Ta) coating on a titanium alloy bone repair implant was fabricated using cold spray (CS) technology, a promising technology for oxygen-sensitive materials. The properties of the surface as wellin vitroCytocompatibility was systematically evaluated. The results showed that a rough and macroporous CS-Ta coating had formed on the Ti6Al4V (TC4) alloy surfaces. The surface roughness showed a significant improvement with increasing diameter from 17.06 µm (CS-Ta-S), 27.48 µm (CS-Ta-M) to 39.21 µm (CS-Ta-L). Average pore size of CS-Ta coatings from 138.25 μm, 198.25 μm to 355.56 μm.in vitroThe results showed that the macroporous CS-Ta structure containing tantalum pentoxide (Ta2Ö5) was more favorable than TC4 for inducing the proliferation, migration and osteodifferentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HBMSCs). Compared with the microstructure outside the macropores, the micronanosurface structure inside the macropores was more favorable for promoting osteodifferentiation with increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and extracellular matrix (ECM) mineralization. Notably, the largest pore size CS-Ta-L showed significantly increased integrin α5 expression, cell migration, ALP activity, ECM mineralization, as well as osteogenesis-related genes including ALP expression, osteopontin (OPN), and osteocalcin (OCN). . Our results suggest that macroporous Ta coatings with CS, especially CS-Ta-L, might be promising for hard tissue repair.
Titanium implant coated with electrosprayed calcium silicate nanoparticles with enhanced antibacterial activity and osteogenesis
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, Volume 202, 2021, Article 111699
To ensure clinical success, the implant and the surrounding bone tissue must not only be integrated, but there must also be no suspicion of infection. In this work, a bioactive and antibacterial nanostructured calcium silicate (CaSi) layer was fabricated on a titanium substrate by electrospray deposition methods and then annealed at 700, 750 and 800 °C to improve the adhesion of the coating. The phase composition, microstructure and bond strength of the CaSi coatings were studied. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC), gram negativeEscherichia coli(E coli) and gram positiveStaphylococcus aureus(S aureus) species were used to analyze the osteogenic and antibacterial activity of the coatings, respectively. The experimental results showed that the prepared CaSi coating was mainly composted from a β-dicalcium silicate phase with a particle size of about 300 nm. After annealing, the thickness of the oxidation reaction layer apparently increased from 0.3 μm to 1 μm with increasing temperature, which was confirmed by the cross-sectional morphology and the depth profile of the element. The adhesion strength of the coating annealed at 750 °C (19.0 MPa) was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of the prepared coating (4.4 MPa) and ISO 13 779 (15 MPa). The antibacterial efficacy and stem cell osteogenesis results consistently showed that the coating annealed at 750 °C had higher activity than both the prepared coating and the Ti control. It is concluded that the Ti implant coated with CaSi nanoparticles exhibited good bond strength, osteogenic and antibacterial activity after annealing at 750 °C.
Novel silver-niobium-hardened hydroxyapatite nanocomposites with improved mechanical and biological properties for bone-loading implants
Applied Materials Today, Vols. 531-542
An ideally resilient implant material for hard tissue replacement requires a combination of excellent mechanical properties and biological functions. However, such a combination can hardly be achieved with bioceramics or monolithic metals. To this end, by combining the individual distinctive advantages of hydroxyapatite (HA), niobium (Nb), and silver (Ag), we developed novel Nb- and Ag-reinforced HA nanocomposites by high-energy ball milling (HEBM) and plasma spark sintering. (PLC). The prepared HA-20Nb and HA-15Nb-5Ag (wt%) exhibit a nanocomposite microstructure with metallic reinforcements evenly distributed in the HA matrix. The formation of a nanothick Ca4A notice:2Ö9The transition layer at the HA/Nb interfaces allows for high interface strength between the reinforcements and the HA matrix. The addition of Nb or Nb-Ag could significantly increase the compressive strength and fracture toughness of HA.in vitrojliveEvaluations also show that the addition of Nb could promote osteoblast proliferation, increase osteogenic differentiation and improve osseointegration capacity. Ag incorporation could significantly increase antibacterial activity against both gram-positive organismsStaphylococcus aureusand gram negative organismEscherichia coli. Therefore, the newly developed nanocomposites can close the gap between the mechanical and biofunctional requirements for bone-loading implants.(Video) Osseointegration by Dr Lyndon Cooper
Trabecular bone remodeling in the human distal tibia: a model based on an in vivo HR-pQCT study
Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, Band 119, 2021, Artikel 104506
An abnormal bone remodeling process can lead to various bone diseases such as osteoporosis, making them prone to fractures. Simulations of the stress-induced remodeling of trabecular bone were used to study its response to mechanical cues. However, the role of the mechanostat in trabecular bone remodeling has yet to be explored in simulations supported by a longitudinal human in vivo study.
In this work, a finite element model based on a 6-month in vivo longitudinal HR-pQCT study was developed and validated to investigate the effect of mechanical stimuli on bone remodeling. The simulated changes in the microstructural parameters and the density of the trabecular bone were compared with the respective experimental results. A maximum principal strain (MPS) and a maximum principal strain gradient (∇MPS) were used as mechanical cues to drive a five-level mechanostat remodeling model, including additional levels of overstressing and damage. The density distribution was found to vary with the mechanical signals studied, in addition to a time-decreasing height in bone volume fraction BV/TV, trabecular thickness Tb.Th, and bone surface area Tb.BS, and greater trabecular separation tablespoons. Among these parameters, BV/TV and Tb.Th together with the bone turnover parameters of the MPS model showed a significant correlation with the experimental data. The developed model provides a good basis for further development and investigation of the relationships between mechanical loading and the microarchitecture of human bone.
Calcium phosphate cement and iron oxide nanoparticles enhanced osteogenic activities of stem cells through WNT/β-catenin signaling
Materials Science and Engineering: C, Volume 104, 2019, Article 109955
Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) functionalized with iron oxide nanoparticles (IONP) shows promise for promoting osteoinduction and new bone formation. In this work, IONP powder was added to CPC powder to fabricate CPC+IONP scaffolds, and the effects of the new compound on bone matrix formation and osteogenesis of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSC) were studied. ). A series of CPC+IONP magnetic frameworks with different IONP contents (1%, 3% and 6%) were fabricated using a 5% chitosan solution as the cement liquor. Western blot and RT-PCR were used to analyze the signaling pathway. The incorporation of IONP significantly improved the performance of CPC+IONP, increasing both mechanical resistance and cellular activities. The addition of IONP significantly promoted hDPSC osteogenesis and increased ALP activity, osteogenic marker gene expression, and bone matrix formation by 1.5- to 2-fold. The addition of 3% IONP showed the greatest improvement in all groups. Activation of the extracellular signaling kinases WNT/β-catenin was observed in DPSC, which was attenuated by the WNT inhibitor DKK1. The results indicated that the osteogenic behavior of hDPSCs was probably controlled by CPC+IONP via the WNT signaling pathway. In conclusion, incorporation of IONP into the CPC scaffold significantly improved stem cell proliferation, osteogenic differentiation, and bone mineral synthesis. Therefore, this method had great potential for bone tissue engineering. The novel CPC+IONP composite scaffolds with stem cells promise an innovative strategy to improve bone regeneration therapies.
Hybrid coating inspired by functionalized porous hydroxyapatite scaffold shells for bone tissue regeneration
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, Vol. 470-4
The scaffold for bone tissue engineering must have sufficient porosity, adequate mechanical properties, cellular affinity for cell attachment, and the ability to bind bioactive agents to induce cell differentiation. In this study, we successfully fabricated a porous hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffold functionalized by a poly(L-lysine)/polydopamine (PLL/PDA) hybrid coating. The PLL/PDA coating utilizes the high protein and cell affinity of PDA and the biodegradability of PLL. Therefore, the coating can anchor bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP2) to the HA scaffold.throughCatechol chemistry under mild conditions to protect BMP2 bioactivity. Meanwhile, the coating can also release BMP2 in a targeted and sustained manner when PLL is degraded in the physiological environment. BMP2-encapsulated PLL/PDA coating on the HA scaffold can promote osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) more efficiently.in vitroand induce ectopic bone formation at a much higher levellivecompared to a simple HA framework delivering BMP2 in burst form. All these results suggest that the PDA-mediated catechol modification of the HA scaffold could be a powerful strategy to develop a sustained protein delivery system and that the PLL/PDA-coated HA scaffold could be a promising candidate for protein engineering applications.
Ag and peptide decorate polyetheretherketone together to enhance antibacterial properties and osteogenic differentiation
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, Volume 198, 2021, Article 111492
Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is considered a promising material for hard tissue repair due to its excellent mechanical behavior and excellent biocompatibility. However, its clinical application is limited by its biological inertness and susceptibility to bacterial infection during implantation. To correct the original deficiencies, autopolymerized dopamine (PDA) was used to enrich silver ions on the PEEK surface. Furthermore, a layer of carboxymethylchitosan (CMC) film was formed on the PEEK surface by the spin coating method with the aim of controlling the release of silver ions on the surface. Simultaneously, the osteogenic peptide (BFP) on the PEEK surface was modified by 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbonimide (EDC)/N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) hydrochloride. The characterization results showed that PEEK-Ag-CMC-BFP could be successfully obtained. The zone of inhibition and the bacterial kinetic curve showed a favorable inhibitory effect of chip-modified PEEK on gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. In vitro experiments showed that PEEK-Ag-CMC-BFP had better biological activity than PEEK, which could promote cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. This dual-function material with antibacterial and bone-promoting properties is expected to have great application potential in the area of hard-tissue repair.(Video) Improved Mechanical Testing Method To Assess Bone-implant Anchorage l Protocol Preview
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Requirements for osseointegration
Typically, this just requires a physically and mentally healthy person without diabetes or a circulatory system disease. Patients who undergo this surgery must stop smoking for 3 months prior to the surgery and will be disallowed to smoke immediately after the treatment as well.
Osseointegration was originally defined as a direct structural and functional connection between ordered living bone and the surface of a load-carrying implant.What is the best implant type allowing osseointegration? ›
Rough implant surfaces are believed to deliver better osseointegration compared with smooth surfaces however, results from different studies vary.How is osseointegration achieved? ›
The processes of osseointegration involve an initial interlocking between alveolar bone and the implant body, and later, biological fixation through continuous bone apposition and remodeling toward the implant.How do you test for implant stability? ›
There are several methods to measure primary implant stability. The most commonly used are RFA (Resonance Frequency Analysis), tactile feeling, torque test, and percussion test.What factors affect successful osseointegration? ›
Osseointegration mainly depends on the quality and quantity of the available bone. Various factors influence the process of osseointegration which include biocompatibility of the implant material, surface topography of the implant, the surgical protocol followed and on the loading of the implants.What is the structure that acts like the bones and makes up the support system of the sponge? ›
As we've seen, most sponges are supported by small bone-like spicules (usually tiny pointed structures made of calcium carbonate or silica) in the mesohyl. Spicules provide support for the body of the sponge, and may also deter predation.How is the structure of bone related to its function? ›
The bone's hard crystal matrix of bone tissue gives it its rigid structure. The other 35 percent of bone is organic material, most of which is the fibrous protein, collagen. The collagen fibers are networked throughout bone tissue and provide it with flexibility and strength.What is the functional relationship of bone matrix and the storage of essential minerals? ›
For one, the bone matrix acts as a reservoir for several minerals important to the functioning of the body, especially calcium and phosphorus. These minerals, incorporated into bone tissue, can be released back into the bloodstream to maintain levels needed to support physiological processes.What is the best primary stability for implant? ›
Other studies found an increase in failure rates when implants installed with insertion torques ≤ 25 N.cm [19,20]. FRA indicated low primary stability when ISQ values are ≤ 45. Favorable implant stability is considered when ISQ values ≥65 .
Submuscular Implant Placement. By placing your implant under the chest muscle, Dr. Armijo can significantly lower your risk of capsular contracture. If you choose completely submuscular placement, you'll only face a 4 to 8% lifetime risk of capsular contracture.What is the best bone quality for implants? ›
Type 2 bone is the best bone for osseointegration of dental implants. It provides good cortical anchorage for primary stability, yet has better vascularity than Type 1 bone. Types 3 and 4 are soft bone textures with the least success in type 4 bone.
Early failure is failure to obtain osseointegration within several weeks or months after implant placement, mainly due to poor bone quality, necrosis of bone due to micro-trauma during surgery, bacterial infections around implants, lack of initial stability, immediate or early loading, smoking, or short-length implants ...What are the 4 phases of osseointegration? ›
However, this concept can be transferred to bone healing and, in particular, to intraoral bone healing of an implant wound – haemostasis, the inflammatory phase, the proliferative phase and finally the remodelling phase.Can osseointegration be achieved without primary stability? ›
Implant primary stability is not an absolute prerequisite to osseointegration; however, it has an effect on the implant survival rate.What is a strong indicator for implant failure? ›
Clinically, failing dental implants are characterized by soft tissue inflammation, increased probing depths, increased mobility, and peri-implant radiolucency. Changes involve both the hard and soft tissues surrounding an implant.What are the different types of implant stability? ›
Implant stability is one of the most important factors for successful implant treatment and seems to be crucial for osteointegration, especially for immediate loading. Primary stability is a mechanical phenomenon, while secondary stability is the result of a biological event (osteointegration)13.How you would know if an implant is a success or failure? ›
Your dentist may recommend an X-ray to check your bone growth if your implant is mobile. An X-ray of a failed implant will probably show substantial loss of bone around the metal portion. Other signs your implant is compromised include pain, swelling, or infection.What are the three major reasons for failure of implants? ›
- #1 Misalignment of The Implant: ...
- #2 Poorly Taken Impressions. ...
- #3 Peri-Implantitis And Other Infections. ...
- #4 Failed Osseointegration. ...
- #5 Nerve Damage. ...
- #6 Failure of The Implant Itself. ...
- #7 Foreign body rejection and Allergic reaction.
Patients who have good oral hygiene and visit their dentist regularly are more likely to have successful dental implants. Additionally, patients who do not smoke and who have healthy gums are also more likely to have successful dental implants. Another important factor is the experience of the implant dentist.
According to the anatomical site of implant placements, the most favorable results were obtained in the posterior mandible and the less favorable results were obtained in the anterior maxilla.What bone provides support and stability? ›
A short bone is one that is cube-like in shape, being approximately equal in length, width, and thickness. The only short bones in the human skeleton are in the carpals of the wrists and the tarsals of the ankles. Short bones provide stability and support as well as some limited motion.
Ligaments often connect two bones together, particularly in the joints: Like strong, firmly attached straps or ropes, they stabilize the joint or hold the ends of two bones together.What are the structures that stabilize and support a joint? ›
Ligaments. Strong ligaments (tough, elastic bands of connective tissue) surround the joint to give support and limit the joint's movement. Ligaments connect bones together.How does the structure of bone affect its strength? ›
Bone strength is determined by its material composition and structure. Bone must be stiff to resist deformation, thereby making loading possible, and it must also be flexible to absorb energy by deforming. Bones shorten and widen when compressed, and lengthen and narrow in tension.What is most responsible for bone structure? ›
Osteoblasts. Osteoblasts are cuboidal cells that are located along the bone surface comprising 4–6% of the total resident bone cells and are largely known for their bone forming function .How does the structure of a bone make it strong? ›
Bone is a living, growing tissue. It is made mostly of two materials: collagen (KOL-uh-juhn), a protein that provides a soft framework, and calcium (KAL-see-uhm), a mineral that adds strength and hardness. This combination makes bone strong and flexible enough to hold up under stress.What are the four components of the structural and functional unit of compact bone tissue? ›
To wrap it all up, osteons are structural and functional units of compact bone. Every osteon is made up of a central canal (which contains nerves and blood vessels), perforating canals, lamellae (configurations of bone matrix), and osteocyte-containing lacunae (holes).What factors determine where bone matrix is to be remodeled? ›
Abstract. Bone remodeling is thought to be regulated by many factors including nutritional status, humoral factors, and biomechanical stress.What are the major components of the matrix in bone tissue and importance to bone tissue? ›
Bone matrix (also known as osteoid) consists of about 33% organic matter (mostly Type I collagen) and 67% inorganic matter (calcium phosphate, mostly hydroxyapatite crystals). The osteoblasts occur as simple, epithelial-like layer at the developing bone surface.
Extent of implant stability may also depend on the situation of surrounding tissues [3, 12]. Bone quantity and quality, implant geometry, and surgical technique adopted are also among the predominant clinical factors that affect primary stability .What does implant stability mean? ›
In clinical practice, implant stability measurements (ISQ) are used as an indirect indicator to determine the time frame for practical implant loading and as a prognostic indicator for possible implant failure.What is the best implant surface? ›
Study comparing types of dental implant surfaces
The study showed that implants with the anodized surface showed the best survival rate (98.5%) with at least 10 years' follow-up.
Some surgeons or medical professionals recommend additional techniques for minimizing your risk of getting capsular contracture: Avoid vigorous activity for the first several weeks of your recovery. Strenuous exercise can increase your blood pressure, raise your heart rate and cause bleeding around your new implants.What vitamins prevent capsular contracture? ›
Omega-3 supplementation may prevent capsular contracture: Study.What happens if you don't correct capsular contracture? ›
Capsular contracture can cause chronic pain and distortion in the shape of the breast, and it can make the breast rise higher on the chest.How can you tell if you have enough bone for an implant? ›
How is bone evaluated before implant placement? A clinical examination of your mouth and radiographs will allow your dentist to assess the bone. In some cases, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) will be prescribed to evaluate and measure the amount of bone in the jaw.Which type of bone has the highest rate of implant failure? ›
Studies have reported that implants fail in the maxilla more than the mandible9-13. Furthermore, the maxillary anterior region exhibited the highest rate of implant failure. Factors contributing to higher implant failure in the maxillary arch compared to mandibular arch are not yet understood14,15.How do you prevent bone loss with implants? ›
A dental implant is surgically placed into your gum and jaw bone. Then, once it has healed, it transmits the force of everyday chewing, smiling, and biting into your jaw bone. This prevents the bone from deteriorating further, and can actually strengthen it.Which is a leading cause of dental implant failure? ›
The most frequent and avoidable cause of dental implant failure is infection. At any moment over the course of implant therapy, a bacterial infection that results in implant failures can happen. Peri-implantitis is a term used to describe an inflammatory response with bone loss in the soft tissues surrounding implants.
The reason for this is that the dental implant must “osseointegrate” with your jaw bone and bond to it permanently. This process can take 3-6 months or longer.How do you know if osseointegration has failed? ›
- Severe Pain and Discomfort. ...
- Gum Recession around the Implant. ...
- Difficulty While Chewing and Biting. ...
- Shifting and Loose Implant. ...
- Swollen Gums. ...
- Implant Micro-Movements. ...
- Sudden Allergic Reactions. ...
- Teeth Grinding.
The primary factor for success at the time of placement is achieving primary stability. Any micromotion during initial phases of bone healing will cause a lack of integration. Failure is most often caused by overloading due to transmucosal forces of removable appliance over the implant site.What factors increase osseointegration? ›
Thus, osseointegration depends on the material used in the implant, the machining conditions, the surface finish, the type of bone that receives the implant, the surgical technique, design of the prosthesis and the patient care.What is the difference between primary stability and secondary stability implants? ›
Primary stability comes from mechanical engagement with cortical bone. Secondary stability is developed from regeneration and remodeling of the bone and tissue around the implant after insertion and affected by the primary stability, bone formation and remodelling.What is a dental implant without primary stability? ›
Lack of primary stability occurs when the mineralization of the bone is diminished, and the bone provides insufficient anchorage. A second clinical situation where lack of primary stability may result is the placement of an implant in an immediate extraction socket (a space larger than the implant itself).What is a contraindication for osseointegration? ›
Indications and Contraindications
Exclusion criteria include skeletal immaturity, active infection, peripheral arterial disease, diabetes mellitus, current chemotherapy or immunosuppressant drug use, active smoking status, osteoporosis, metabolic bone disease, or untreated skin disease of the residual limb.
The main requirements demanded for orthopedic implants are: high biocompatibility with no causation of inflammatory or toxicity for the human body, appropriate mechanical, tribological, and surface properties and economically feasible manufacturing and processing.What are the basic requirements of implant materials? ›
Tensile, compressive and shear strength: An implant material should have high tensile and compressive strength to prevent fractures and improve functional stability. Improved stress transfer from the implant to bone is reported interfacial shear strength is increased, and lower stresses in the implant.What is the failure rate of osseointegration? ›
The overall success rate was 98.12%. Failure was recorded with an overall failure rate of 1.88% (Table 4 and Figure 1). Success rates range from 95.52% for implants placed in the anterior maxilla to 98.90% in those inserted in the posterior mandible.
Secondary stability or osseointegration rather depends on implant surface microdesign, surface composition, and biological bone quality. Conical implant designs as well as extended implant threads aim to increase primary stability especially in spongy D4 bone like in the maxillary side region.Do implants always need bone graft? ›
Do All Dental Implants Require Bone Grafting? Some people are hesitant to replace their missing teeth with dental implants for fear of undergoing bone grafting. But the truth is that not all dental implants require bone grafting. Your dentist will analyze your jawbone to determine if a bone graft is necessary.Can I get implants if I have no bone? ›
If no bone exists, it's impossible to place an implant. Every dental implant needs just as much bone to support it as you would for a natural tooth. This is why bone grafting is so essential after tooth loss!What makes you not a candidate for dental implants? ›
Age limitations for dental implants are explained earlier, and teenagers without complete jawbone growth are the sole candidates considered unsuitable for dental implants. Anyone who is 70 would have attained total jawbone growth several years earlier.Which is most critical or most common for implant failure? ›
The most frequent and avoidable cause of dental implant failure is infection. At any moment over the course of implant therapy, a bacterial infection that results in implant failures can happen. Peri-implantitis is a term used to describe an inflammatory response with bone loss in the soft tissues surrounding implants.What is the most commonly used implant design? ›
Today, the most commonly used implant design is a tapered screw, with a moderately rough implant surface, thus facilitating one-stage surgical procedures and allowing for immediate or early loading protocols.What is the ideal property of a medical implant? ›
Ideally, they should have biomechanical properties comparable to those of autogenous tissues without any adverse effects. The principal requirements of all medical implants are corrosion resistance, biocompatibility, bio-adhesion, biofunctionality, processability and availability.What are the three parts of an implant? ›
Unlike dentures or bridges, dental implants are a permanent solution that provides a natural-looking and functioning replacement tooth. The three main parts of dental implants are the implant, the abutment, and the crown.